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AN INTRODUCTION 

TO 

BRETON GRAMMAR. 



AN INTRODUCTION 



TO 



BRETON GRAMMAR 



DESIGNED CHIEFLY FOR THOSE CELTS AND OTHERS IN GREAT 

BRITAIN WHO DESIRE A LITERARY ACQUAINTANCE, 

THROUGH THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, WITH 

THEIR RELATIVES AND NEIGHBOURS 

IN LITTLE BRITAIN 



BY 

J. PERCY TREASURE 

Member of the Council of the Cornish-Celtic Society 




CARMARTHEN: W. SPURRELL & SON 
MDCCCCIII. 



PREFACE. 



THE principal object which influenced the writer in 
bringing out this small volume was a need admitted 
to exist by not a few competent to form an opinion 
for some simple exposition in English of the Grammar 
of the Breton Language, which would be of service to 
that large and rapidly growing section of the British 
race which desires an acquaintance with the literature 
and language of their Armorican relatives in Little 
Britain. Of this section a considerable proportion have 
been deterred by their imperfect knowledge of the third 
language hitherto essential to such acquaintance. And 
this definition of its scope may be said to determine the 
limits of its 'Sphere of influence,' for the writer makes 
no pretence to have compiled a treatise by the mastery 
of which, the tyro could be justified in supposing him- 
self fully equipped for the purpose of sustaining a con- 
versation in the Breton language. It will rather seek 
to demonstrate by rule and paradigm many of the 
former strangely familiar on this side of the Channel 
the high degree of excellence attained by this ancient 
tongue, and its faithfulness to its Celtic origin; and that 
too, despite both its complete isolation from its con- 
geners in Great Britain, as well as the repressive efforts 
put forth from time to time, directly and indirectly, to 
deprive this language of its very existence. 

That the government of a country which adopts as 



6 PREFACE. 

embodying its highest political aspirations the motto, 
4 Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity,' should at the 
beginning of this twentieth century be compassing the 
extinction of a language vernacular to some two 
millions of its bravest and most devoted citizens is, to 
the more happily-circumstanced Briton, a strangely 
anomalistic position ! To find a parallel to such an 
arbitrary and autocratic measure as that issued by the 
French Minister of Spiritual Affairs, and dated Sep- 
tember 29th, 1902 (whereby over one million Breton 
people are deprived of all effective religious instruction 
by the insistence that such instruction be given in 
French only), it is happily necessary for us in Great 
Britain to go as far back as the time of the Reforma- 
tion; when the partially-understood Latin service 
book was withdrawn from the Cornish Church, on 
the excellent plea that all public worship should be 
offered in accordance with Apostolic precept 4 in a 
known tongue ' at the same time with the utmost in- 
consequence the authorities imposed an English service 
book, hardly one word of which was intelligible to the 
Cornish people! That privilege which the Welsh 
were powerful enough to secure to themselves by 
statute law (v. Elizabeth; xiii. xiv. Charles II.), the 
Cornish, on the petition of their Anglophile gentry (on 
commercial grounfeproh pudorf)*, as well as on account 
of their relatively small numbers, lost. May the Breton 
people escape the fate of their Cornish cousins, for 
jam proximus ardet Ucalegon! 



p. 4 Polwhele's Literature of Cornwall. 



PREFACE. 7 

The genesis of this little work is as follows. With 
the object already described, the writer contributed 
month by month a series of papers to the Celtic Asso- 
ciation's organ Celtia, and having heard some very 
kind expressions of appreciation, he was encouraged 
thereby to hope that with the addition of other rele- 
vant matter, these papers might serve yet higher pur- 
pose if printed in book form. 

In method, this work follows, more or less closely, the 
treatment of Armoric Grammar by Le Gonidec, a very 
Hector of Breton grammarians. Villemarque, the 
learned scholiast on Le Gonidec, has laid it down that 
4 the dialect of Leon is for the Bretons that which the 
Attic was for the Greeks/ and by postulating this, has 
rendered unnecessary any explanation from future 
writers on Breton grammar as to why that dialect, of 
all the varying dialects of Brittany, should be selected 
for representative place. For in Brittany, it should be 
remembered, we have four well-defined areas (practi- 
cally diocesan) of dialect; namely, Treguier, Leon, 
Cornouaille, and Vannes, and many of these differ the 
one from the other as extensively as they all do from 
Welsh, or Manx from Scotch or Irish Gaelic. And 
not only so, but within these areas, communes vary the 
diocesan vernacular almost to the extent of the differ- 
ence between North and South Walian, and greater 
than that which divides between North- and South-side 
Manx, Connaught- and Munster-Irish, or even Caith- 
ness- and Argyle-Scotch. The melligenous speech of 
the Vannetois may constitute him the Chrysostom of 
Brittany, or even of Celtdom itself; the fervour of the 



8 PREFACE. 

Breton Cornishman and the contemplative spirituality 
of the Trecorrois has furnished Emile Souvestre with 
abundant material for his unrivalled sketches of Breton 
life; but it is to the refined language of Leonais that 
the grammarian must ever turn for his material, follow- 
ing in the tracks of Le Pelletier, Rostrenen, and Le 
Gonidec. 

It is to these Fathers of Breton grammar that the 
writer gratefully acknowledges his indebtedness, but 
especially to the latter, for had not Le Gonidec stereo- 
typed the language, and by doing so saved it from 
complete disintegration, it were a futile thing to-day 
to provide an aid to understanding that which no longer 
had existence. The following extract from the Ap- 
pendix to Norris' ' Cornish Drama'* will not be with- 
out interest (and possibly instruction) to those who are 
most likely to take up this book. In a few words and 
by some exceedingly well-chosen parallels, Mr. Norris 
has succeeded in showing, coup d'ceil, the precise rela- 
tionship 'of the Cymric class; wherein the Welsh differs 
as much from the two others (i.e. Cornish and Breton) 
as French from Spanish, whilst Cornish and Breton 
stand in a closer relation; these resemble each other 
more than Dutch and German, as much perhaps as 
Portugese and Spanish, but not so closely as Scotch 
and Irish/ In spite of statements to the contrary, the 
writer (i.e. Mr. Norris) is of opinion that a Breton, 
within the historical existence of the two dialects, could 
not have understood a Cornishman speaking at any 

* p. 458 Norris' ' Cornish Drama,' Oxford. 



PREFACE. 9 

length, or on any but the most trivial subjects; he is 
himself unable to read a sentence in Breton of more 
than half-a-dozen lines without the help of a diction- 
ary. Mr. Scawen (a Cornishman), near the close of 
the seventeenth century, made a similar remark as 
quoted in the preface to Pryce's Vocabulary. He ob- 
serves : * Words of one another, 'tis true, three sorts of 
people do understand alternately; not all, but mostly 
such as are radical. Colloquies of one another they do 
not enjoy.' Mr. Norris' or Dr. Pryce's Welshman 
might, of course, have received a letter written in the 
vernacular of Brittany or Cornwall and returned answer 
in his own, without either party experiencing much 
difficulty in getting at the meaning of the other, but 
let such an one attempt a conversation on the basis of 
such previous understanding, and he will immediately 
be convinced of the completeness of that process of 
disintegration which, commencing at Babel, is still in 
active operation to-day ! 



10 AN INTRODUCTION 



CHAPTER I. 



THE ALPHABET. 

The orthography of the Breton Language is more 
exact than that of Cornwall, but not so correct as that 
of Wales, with both of which branches of Brythonic 
speech it is in otherwise close resemblance, idioma- 
tically and phonetically. 

Its sounds are indicated by the following 24 letters, 18 
of which are consonants, 6 are vowels. The value of 
each letter is given in English as well as in Celtic, the 
gradations observed by precise Gaelic orthographers 
being given where possible. 



D 
F 



Celtic B. English 4 explosive ' B. 
Celtic C. Modified by juxtaposition to broad 
or slender vowel, as in 

1. English K in ' ing,' ' eep.' 

2. English hard C in 'could,' 'car,' 'com- 

fort.' * 

Celtic hard D. English ' explosive ' D. 
Celtic ph, ff. English strong f. 



* K is frequently written Ou, the ' littera mendica, sine u tanijuam 
hacillo nikil potest, et cum u nihil valet amplius yuarn k.' Farrar on 
Greek Syntax, p. u. 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 



II 



Celtic G. English hard G, submitting to two 
modifications 



2. 

This letter has been ' Gallicized ' away until its 
present value is no greater than the Greek 
spiritus lenis; it serves to preserve ortho- 
graphy, but has no orthoepic significance. 

Celtic S with slender vowel. S in Welsh ' .sv'arad,' 
and in Gaelic 'szhn.' English S in ' .sure.' 

Celtic CH. The English language is unfortu- 
nate in not possessing this sound. The Breton 
c'h is at present in a state of transition owing 
to Gallic influence: at the beginning of words 
it is frequently softened to a spiritus asper, as 
in 'c'hoas' (pronounced ' hoas '), whilst at the 
end of a word it hardens into k, as in ' Pen- 
marc'h' (pronounced ' penmark'). This is a 
tendency, however, which should meet with 
the scant consideration it deserves at the hands 
of Celtic people remote from this influence. 
It is noteworthy that the distinctive sound of 
c'h has perished from the dialect of Vannes. 

Is a foreign letter, having no literal equivalent 
in English or Celtic, but common in French, 
as in 'jardin.' All the words now spelt with 
j as initial letter are found in older works 
with the vowel i in place of /, where its 
phonetic value is that of the Hebrew yod. 

Has the two sounds common to Gaelic Celtdom, 
although in Breton its power is not invariably 



I 2 AN INTRODUCTION 

decided by contact with broad and slender 
vowels. These two sounds occur in English 

1. ( /ot/ '/ump.' 

2. * va//'ant,' 4 vermi//*bn.' 

Neither here nor in Cornish can the Welsh 
find support for their characteristic aspirated 
liquid LI. 

As in Celtic, as in English, but occasionally 
' nasalized ' (always a tendency in Breton), as 
though involuntarily, by propinquity to the 
following letter, 

Has three distinct sounds 

1. The normal power, as in Eng. 'wag,' *;;o. r 

2. As in English ' miw/on,' ' o;bn.' 

3. A sound irreproducable from any English 
word, but sufficiently recognized both in 
Scottish Gaelic and French, and almost 
the highly nasalized power found in Welsh 
' fy fiJad.' 

f This letter is the distinguishing factor of 
Breton speech, as much so as the LI of the 
Welsh, and the recurrent ' w,' ' aw ' of the 
Cornish. 

As in Celtic, English explosive. 

Is the Celtic broad R, almost found in English 
words, ' very virulent.' Slightly less trilled 
than Welsh, and never the V grasseye of the 
French. The true litter a canina. 

Is a sibilant of greater or less power, but has 
never the low value properly reserved to the 
letter z. 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 13 

As in English. Gaelic tendency to lingual 
protrusion should be avoided. 

V Welsh F. Gaelic Bh. English V. 

Z English Z when initial, but becoming more 
strongly sibilant in the middle of words, and 
possibly at the termination of a word, though 
it is an open question whether z coming as 
a terminal letter in dissyllabic and polysyl- 
labic words should be pronounced as Welsh 
'dd'=Cornish ' dh ' (i.e. English ' th ' in 
' wither ')., to which connection it may in- 
variably be traced. The firmer pronuncia- 
tion is characteristic of Northern Brittany. 

The above catalogue of consonant letters is not with- 
out interest to the observant, for it serves to show how 
a Celtic language when in a position of isolation 
from other languages of its own family, and living side 
by side with a Latin speech, has, in the first place, a 
marked tendency to surrender some distinctively Celtic 
sounds; in the second place, to approximate other 
native sounds to the standard of their neighbours; and 
in the third place, to appropriate and embody sounds 
which originally found no place in its alphabet, and 
which indeed are foreign to the genius of the language. 
Very few such changes have taken place where the 
Celtic Race has found itself dwelling side by side with 
the Teutonic; in such a case there is no change of sound, 
and little of idiom, no system of 'give and take:' the 
line which separates linguistically, between Celt and 
Teuton, is drawn as hard and fast as though they 



14 AN INTRODUCTION 

had but come together yesterday. In this country 
there is no borderland, where people speak half- Welsh- 
half-English, half-Irish-half-English, as in the case of 
some towns of Brittany, where the idiom is wholly 
Breton, whilst the vocabulary is wholly French, and 
vice versa. Here we meet with no one who addresses 
us in a mixed medley of Welsh and English, in Brit- 
tany such an one is frequently met, being the son of 
one who so spoke. Here the Celt may speak the 
Saxon tongue, imparting his native intonation in such 
a manner as to proclaim his nationality, though never 
consciously and of set purpose merging every idiom of 
one language into that of another, but there is affinity 
and a degree of fusion between Irishman and Spaniard, 
Scotchman and Frenchman. Breton and Frenchman. 
The Gaulo-Latin and the Hispano-Latin visitor, im- 
parting of his own characteristic speech to the Celt, 
leaves behind traces of their alliance long after such 
alliance ceases to be a matter of common knowledge; 
but where shall we seek for similar literal or verbal 
interchange between Teuton and Celt ? We have the 
solitary exception to prove our rule in the case of 
Manx Gaelic, a language which has incorporated a 
certain number of Scandinavian words within itself 
and become * habituated ' to them ; but how utterly 
insignificant this Teutonic element is in the Manx 
language, is at once apparent from a perusal of Prof. 
Rhys' scholarly and exhaustive treatise on Manx 
Phonology,* with this object in view. That all such 

* Vol. xxxiii. Manx Society, Rhys and Moore's Book of 
Common Prayer. 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 15 

receptivity on the part of Celtic is not entirely due 
to the partly Celtic extraction of the French and 
Spanish nation, but that such fusion is rather due to 
the affinity which exists between the Latin and Celtic 
speech may be demonstrated by the large number of 
Latin words received into the Welsh language at the 
time of the Roman occupation of Britain. 



VOWELS. 

These are six in number, A, E, I, O, U, W, of 
which the first five have a double value, a long- 
quantity, indicated by the circumflex accent (an acute 
accent in the case of vowel E), and a short quantity, 
which is the normal condition of the letter and is un- 
distinguished by accentuation. 

The sound of these vowels is that common to most 
Celtic and ' Continental ' languages, though the U of 
the Breton does not follow the U sound of the Welsh, 
but the normal value of that vowel throughout Celt- 
dom. 

The value of the diphthong very readily resolves 
itself, each letter imparting equally its own unvarying 
sound, so that there is no occasion to burden the 
learner with rules for their proper pronunciation. 
The sounds quite naturally blend with one another in 
a manner which cannot be other than accurate. 

The Welsh reader of Breton (and to a certain extent 
the English reader) may, for all practical purposes r 
treat the combination OU as his letter W, by which plan 



l6 AN INTRODUCTION 

he will be saved much trouble in the not uncommon 
event of finding three !,or four vowels in collocation. 

As would appear to have been the case in Cornish, 
and as is undoubtedly the case in English (less in 
grammatical, greater in provincial English), the value 
of the vowel in each particular district is not absolutely 
fixed, and the learner may allow himself a greater 
degree of latitude in this matter than would be safe in 
the matter of Welsh or Gaelic. 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 1 7 



CHAPTER II. 



THE ARTICLE. 

In his excellent Grammar of the Cornish language,* 
Mr. Tenner disputes the right of that language to an 
indefinite article, being of opinion that such usage is 
traceable to a Saxon source and is foreign to the 
primitive language, and in this contention he is almost 
certainly correct. But its use is less extensive in 
Cornish than in Breton, in which language, whatever 
its origin, its value cannot be ignored, nor its preval- 
ence denied. 

It may be well for us here to recollect that in this 
language we find that characteristic tendency of Celtic 
speech which makes for perfect euphony and uninter- 
rupted fluence between word and word, sentence and 
sentence, carried to its highest pitch of development. 
To such an extent does this tendency go, that not only 
do we find a system of initial mutation carried to a 
point beyond other Celtic languages, but also a system 
of euphonic terminal mutation (unconnected with 
accidental significance) which, being recognised in part 
by other families of Celtdom, has in the Breton lan- 
guage its extremely well-defined place. 

This tendency is well exemplified by the Breton 
Article. 

* The Mss. of which he has kindly permitted me to see. 
2 



i8 



AN INTRODUCTION 



THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. 

This article is written in three forms, viz.: 

ANN before a vowel and consonants D N T. 
AL before the consonant L. 
AR before all other consonants. 

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE. 

This article is also found in three forms, viz.: 

EUNN before a vowel and consonants D N T. 
EUL before the consonant L. 
EUR before all other consonants. 

Both of these Articles are subject to declension 
throughout all cases. 





Definite. 


, Indefinite. 


Nominative 
Accusative 
Genitive - 
Dative - - 


ann or al or ar 
ann al ar 
euz ann, euz al, euz ar 
d'ann d'al d'ar 


eunn or eul or eur 
eunn eul eur 
euz a eunn, euz a eul, euz a eur 
d'eunn d'eul d'eur 




PLURAL. 




Nominative 
Accusative- 
Genitive - 
Dative - - 


ann al ar 
ann al ar 
efiz ann, euz al, euz ar 
d'ann d'al d'ar 


euz a,* euz a, euz a 
da da da 



There is no occasion for the Brythono-Celtic article 
to submit to change in order to indicate gender, this 
being determined by the initial mutation, as number 
is indicated by inflexion, in the succeeding word. In 
consonance with general Celtic practice, the definite 



This is, of course, untranslatable into English. 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 19 

article is not required before proper nouns, of country, 
town, and island though there are notable exceptions 
to this rule in Welsh, Y Wyddfa, Y Bala, Y Gelli, 
&c. Thus the Breton speaks of his country as Breiz, 
and of one of his islands as Enez Eiisa, unlike the 
Englishman who ' goes to the Isle of Man,' or ' the Isle 
of Arran.' 

A few examples by way of illustration of the above 
principles are here given. 

1. Ar ger euz ann Aotrou. 
The word of the Lord. 

2. Ar pen-kenta euz al lizer d'ar C'halated. 
The beginning of the Epistle to the Galations. 

3. Eunn tamm euz a eunn askourn. 
A fragment of a bone. 

4. Eur c'han euz a eul levr ar Salmou. 
A chant of a Psalter. 

N.B. In actual practice it is customary to omit the 
mark of the genitive case, its position immediately 
following the preceding substantive being sufficient 
indication of case; whilst the articular emphasis, 
which in English requires stress on the spoken, and 
italics on the written word, finds expression in Breton 
often by the opposite process the total omission of 
any article 

1. Ar pen-kenta euz Aviel Jesus Krist, Mab Doue. 
The beginning of (the) Gospel of Jesus Christ, 

(the) Son of God. 

2. Roue Bro-Zaos a oe klanv. 

(The) King of England has been ill. 



20 



AN INTRODUCTION 



CHAPTER III. 



THE PRONOUN. 

Pronominal usages are frequent and varied in the 
Breton language. 

In treating of the pronoun, it should be borne in mind 
that though the pronoun may take a like form in differ- 
ent cases, persons, genders, and numbers, yet its sig- 
nification is rendered entirely unambiguous by an 
elaborate and ingenious system of initial mutation, 
which will be explained in the chapter on ' Mutation.' 



THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. 

Nominative Case. 



Singular. Plural. 




I. Me, am or em / 
2. Te, az or ez, ec'h thou 

3. Hen. (fern.) hi, he | J^ 


Ni, hon or hor 
C'houi, ho or hoc' 

Hi, ho 


we 
h ^07^ 

they 


Accusative Case. 




I. Ma, am [oun, en] me 
2. Ta, az [oud, ez] thee 
3. Han, hen or her, he. him 
(fem.) he, hi her 


Hor or hon [omp, 
Ho or hoc'h [hu] 
Ho, hi 


imp] # 
^o 
them 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 21 



Accusative used Genitivally. 

Singular. Plural. 



1. Ac'hanoun (of) me 

2. Ac'hanod (of) thee 

3. Anezhan (of) him 
Anezhi (of) her 



Ac'hanomp (of) us 

Ac'hanoc'h (of) you 

Anezho (of) them 



Dative Case. 



1 . D'in * to me 

2. D'id to thee 

3. D'ezhan to htm 

d'ezhi to her 



D'eomp to us 

D'ehoc'h to you 

D'ezho to them 



EXPLANATION. Though the pronoun as thus given 
may have an involved appearance, it is not such in 
fact, as the following explanations will show. 

1. The forms in square brackets are the pronominal 
terminations of that Celtic (and useful) combination of 
preposition with pronoun,t as: Ganen (with me), ganez, 
ganthan; ganeomp, ganeoc'h, gantho. Hepzoun (with- 
out me) hepzoud, hepzhan ; hepzomp, hepzoc'h, hepzho. 

2. The 2nd person plural, Accusative Case [hu] is a 
terminal insistant, and serves to further distinguish the 
person as Mar kirit-hu (if YOU wish). 

3. The Alternative c'h precedes vowels. 

4. The interchange of broad with slender vowels (a 

* D' (= da) in conjunction with a pronoun is the sign of the dative 

case, d' am zad, to my father] d' az c'hoar, to your sister. 

f Prof. Rhys regards these syntheticisms as evidence of pre-Aryan 

influence. 



22 AN INTRODUCTION 

with c] in conjunction with the same consonant will 
be explained hereafter. (Verbal enclitics, q.v. p. 26.) 

5. There are many rules for the position of the pro- 
noun all in harmony with Celtic usage, and none 
peculiar to Breton; but in simple construction the 
objective pronoun follows closely the subjective. 

Me ho trugareka' I thank you 



THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUN. 

This pronoun takes two forms, the first of which is 
identical with the primary form of the accusative case 
of the personal pronoun, and which may be called the 
simple form; the second, denoting absolute possession, 
may be styled the emphatic form. 

Simple Form, 

Singular. Plural. 



1. Ma or va my or mine 

2. Ta or da thy or thine 



Hon or hoi or hor our 
Hoc'h or ho your 



3. He his Ho their 



Emphatic Form. 



I . Ma hini or re my very 



own 



2. Ta hini or re thy very 



own 



3. He hini or re his very 



own 



Hon hini or hor re our 
very own 

Hoc'h hini or ho re your 
very own 

Ho hini or re their very 
own 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 23 

Hint or re being used according to whether the pos- 
session indicated is in the singular or plural number. 



THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN. 

The demonstrative pronoun in Breton is very exact, 
having many subtle shades of meaning unknown to 
the English language; as Dr. Pughe, speaking of 
the six classes of Welsh demonstrative pronoun, re- 
marks that they ' make a discrimination of person and 
situation for which the English this and that are not 
equivalent/ so we may affirm of Breton. 

FIRST. The use of the Definite Article emphasized by 
pronominal particles, hini in singular and re in 
plural. 

SECOND. He-man (masculine), hou-man (feminine); 
becoming re-man in the plural, which answers to 
the Cymric hwn yma, hon yma; and y rhai hyn. 
This form is more emphatic than the preceding. 

THIRD. Hennez (masculine), hounnez (feminine); ar 
re-ze (plural) = Latin Hie, haec; and haec 'this 
nearer object.' Cymric, hwna, hona; y rhai yna. 

FOURTH. Henhont (masculine), hounhont (feminine); 
ar re hont (plural) =. Latin ille, ilia; ilia, 'that re- 
moter object.' Cymric Hwn yna , hon yna; y rhai 
hyn yna. 



24 AN INTRODUCTION 

FIFTH. An independent interrogative, as 

Ann drd man 
(Y peth ymd) 

The thing under consideration 

i 

i i 

Ann drd ze Ann drd-hont 

(Ynd) (*) 

less remote. more remote. 



THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN. 

The following pronouns are used interrogatively: 

Pehini which ? who ? plural, pere 

Piou who ? 

( Petra what ? (= what thing?} why ? 

\ Pebez what? ( Welsh, pa beth ?} . 

Of these pehini (plural pere) is used- relatively as well 
as piou ben nag (Welsh, pwy by nag], whoever, and 
petra-bennag (Welsh, beth bynag], whatever. 

The Relative Pronoun in Breton, as in Welsh and 
Cornish, is frequently omitted, being understood. 

W. Efe yw'r dyn a welais. 

B. Hen eo ann den me a welaz. 

C. Ev yu an den mi a welys. 
E. He is the man whom I saw. 






TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 2 5 



CHAPTER IV. 



THE VERB. 

The Breton language is rich in the possession of 
three auxuliary verbs, of which the utmost use is made. 
These are Beza, to be; Kaout, to have; and Ober, to 
do (the latter as extensively used as an auxiliary, as in 
Cornish and the Gaelic languages). The various tenses 
of these verbs enter into loose composition with the 
infinitive mood of the principal verb to a most useful 
degree. In addition to this method of conjugation, 
all verbs are used both personally and impersonally 
that is to say, they may be conjugated throughout 
each person of the tense, each tense of the mood, and 
each mood of the verb, and are then termed personal 
verbs; or, the third person singular of each tense may 
be used in conjunction with the pronoun proper to each 
person of the tense, and separated from it by an enclitic, 
in which case they are designated impersonal verbs. 

The rule for the proper employment of the personal 
and impersonal verb is thus given by Le Gonidec, 
though the rule is not without its exceptions. 

When the subject is a noun substantive or personal 
pronoun which commences a sentence, the verb which 
follows it must be conjugated 'impersonally.' 

When the sentence opens with an adverb or preposi- 
tion, or when the accusative case precedes the verb 
{which in our language is very frequently the case), the 
verb is conjugated 'personally.' 



26 AN INTRODUCTION 

The enclitic particles a and e (ez, ec'h) enter largely 
into the construction of the Breton verb, and its alter- 
native use is decided by the following circumstances. 

1. When a noun or pronoun (in either the nomina- 

tive or accusative case) immediately precedes, 
the verb, the broad particle (a) is introduced 
into its structure. 

2. But when an adverb or a preposition immediately 

precedes the verb, the slender particle (e) is 
introduced, euphonized to ez and ec*h before 
vowels. 

3. EXCEPT in the present indicative (which in this 

case employs no particle), when the verb beza 
(to be) is preceded by an adjective, the slender 
particle with its modifications is introduced. 
Exempla 

1 . Me a wel eur stereden . / see a star. 

Ar gwin a zo marc'had mad The wine is cheap. 
Bara a zebr He eats bread. 

2. Aliez^'kompsann Brezonek I often speak Breton* 
Aliez ez inn I shall often go. 

3. Klan e oa He was ill. 
Pinvidik c vezo He will be rich. 

N.B. The verb, as in Welsh, is negatived by means 
of the two negative particles, ne and ket, the former of 
which precedes and the latter succeeds the verb to be 
negatived.* 

Ne kano ket He will not sing. 

* In literary Breton this practice is much observed, being coun- 
tenanced by the parallel French usage of ne-pas, a Celtic survival 
like the ' r grasseyeV 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 
I. 

THE AUXILIARY VERB BEZA (to be). 
Personally conjugated. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 



27 



Singular. 



Plural. 



I. 


Ounn 


I am 


Ornp 


we are 


2. 


Oud 


thou art 


Oc'h 


you are 


3- 


fio 


he is 


Int 


they are 






Imperfect Tense. 




i. 


Oann 


I was 


Oamp 


we were 


2. 


Oaz 


thou wast 


Oac'h 


you were 


3- 


Oa 


he was 


Oant 


they were 






Perfect Tense. 




i. 


Oenn 


I have been 


Oemp 


we have been 


2. 


Oez 


thou hast been 


Oec'h 


you have been 


3- 


Oe 


he has been 


Cent 


they have been 






Future 7ense. 




i. 


Bezinn 


I shall be 


Bezimp 


we shall be 


2. 


Bezi 


thou wilt be 


Bezot 


ye will be 


3- 


Bezo 


he will be 


Bezint 


they will be 






SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 








Present Tense. 




I. 


Ra vezinn I may be 


Ra vezimp 


we may be 


2. 


Ra vezi 


thou mayst be 


Ra viot 


you may be 


3- 


Ra vezo 


he may be 


Ra vezint 


they may be 



28 AN INTRODUCTION 

OPTATIVE MOOD. 

1st Conditional Tense. 

1. Bizen, bijenn, bienn, benn* ^ 

2. Bizez, bijez, biez, bez > should be 

3. Size, bije, bie, be 

1. Bizemp, bijemp, biemp, bemp^ 

2. Bizec'h, bijec'h, biec'h, bec'h > should be 

3. Bizent, bijent, bient, bent / 

2nd Conditional Tense. 

Singular. 

1. Ra venn I might be 

2 . Ra vez thou mightst be 

3. Ra ve he might be 

Plural. 

1 . Ra vemp we might be 

2. Ra vec'h you might be 

3. Ra vent they might be 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Singular. Plural. 



I. 



2. Bez be thou 

V Bezet let him be 



Bezomp let us be 

Bezit be ye 

Bezent let them be 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present, Imperfect, Perfect, and Future Tenses. 

Beza, to be 

Present Participle O veza, being 

Perfect Participle Bet, been 

* In descending order of literary merit. 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 29 

II. 

THE AUXILIARY VERB BEZA (to be). 
Impersonally conjugated. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

Me a zo Ni a zo / am 

Te a zo C'houi a zo 

Hen a zo Hi a zo 

Imperfect Tense. 

Me a oa Ni a oa / was (wont to be) 

&c. &c. 



/ have been 



I shall be 



SUBJUNCTIVE AND IMPERATIVE MOODS. 

Present Tense. 
(As the personal verb.) 

OPTATIVE MOOD. 

1st Conditional Tense. 

Me a ve Ni a ve I should be 

&c. &c. 

2nd Conditional Tense. 
(As the personal verb.) 



Me a oe 


Perfect Tense. 
Ni a oe 


&c. 


&c. 




Future Tense. 


Me a vezo 


Ni a vezo 


&c. 


&c. 



3O AN INTRODUCTION 

INFINITIVE MOOD AND PARTICIPLES. 

(As the personal verb.) 

Le Gonidec mentions a third method of conjugation 
much in vogue amongst the people of Leon, which 
consists in placing the infinitive verb before the per- 
sonal finite verb, and introducing the slender enclitic, 
as this 

Present. Imperfect. 

1 . Beza ez ounn* Beza ez oann 

2. Beza ez oud Beza ez oaz 

3. Beza ez eo Beza ez oa 

Perfect. Future. 

1. Beza ez oenn Beza e vezinn 

2. Beza ez oez Beza e vezi 

3. Beza ez oe Beza e vezo 

&c. 

And yet another method, occasionally met with, 
noticed by the same authority 

Indicative Present. 

1. Bezann Bezomp 

2. Bezez Bezit 

3. Bez Bezont 

Colloquialisms have attacked and taken large 
liberties with this verb. 

* Colloquially, Bdz' ez ounn, &c. 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 3! 

I. 

THE AUXILIARY VERB KAOUT (to have). 
Personally conjugated. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. Em euz I have \ Hon euz we have 

2. Ec'h euz thou hast \ Hoc'h euz you have 

3. Hen deuz he has \ Ho deuz they have 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 . Em boa / was having 

2 . Ez poa thou wast having 

3. Hen doa he was having 

1 . Hor boa we were having 

2. Ho poa you were having 

3. Ho doa they were having 

Perfect Tense. 

1 . Em boe / had Hor boe we had 

2. Ez poe thou hadst Ho poe you had 

3. Hen doe he had \ Ho doe they had 

Future Tense. 

1 . Em bezo / shall have 

2. Ez pezo thou wilt have 

3. Hen devezo he will have 

1 . Hor bezo we shall have 

2 . Ho pezo you will have 

3. Ho devezo they will have 



AN INTRODUCTION 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

Singular. 

i . R'am bezo / may have 



2. R'az pezo thou mayst 

have 

3. R'en devezo he may 

have 



Plural. 

R'or bezo we may have 



R'6 pezo you may have 
R'6 devezo they may have 



OPTATIVE MOOD. 

1st Conditional Tense. 

1 . Em pe / should \ , Hor be we should have 

> have 
or might ) 

2. Az pe thou shouldst 

have 

3. Hen defe he should 

have 



Ho pe you should have 
Ho defe they should have 



2nd Conditional Tense. 



1. R'am befe^ 

2. R'az pefe > 



should 
or 



3. R'en defe / might have 



R'or befe 
R'6 pefe 
R'6 defe 



i. 

2. Ez pez 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Hon bezet 



have thou 



3. Hen defet let him have 



Ho pezet 
Ho defent 



let us have 

have you 

let them have 



INFINITIVE MOOD, Kaout (to have). 
Present Participle 6 kaout having [6 veza] 
Perfect Participle [Bet had] 






TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 33 

II. 

THE IMPERSONAL VERB KAOUT. 



Strictly speaking, this verb has no personal form, 
but merely two impersonal forms; but Le Gonidec 
classes Form I. as a personal verb, in order to preserve 
the rule given for the employment of the personal verb 
(p. 25). The Tenses of Form II. run as follows: 

INDICATIVE MOOD : Present Tense, me am euz ; Im 
Perfect, Me am boa; Perfect, Me am boe; Future, Me 
am bezo. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD : not rendered in this form. 

OPTATIVE MOOD: ist, Me am be; 2nd, not rendered 
in this form. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD : not rendered in this form. 
INFINITIVE MOOD : not rendered in this form. 



I. 

THE AUXILIARY VERB ODER (to do}. 
Personally conjugated. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present 

Singular. 

I. Rann I do 
2. Rez thou doest 


1 Tense. 

Plural. 

Reomp 
Rit 


3. Ra he does 

3 


Reont 



we do 
you do 
they do 



34 



AN INTRODUCTION 



Imperfect Tense. 

Singular. 

1. Reann I was doing Reamp 

2 . Reez thou wast doing Reac'h 

3. Rea he was doing Reant 



1. Riz 

2. Rezoud 

3. Reaz 



1. Rinn 

2. Ri 

3. Raid 



Perfect Tense. 
I did Rezomp 



thou didst 
he did 



Rezot 
Rezont 



Future Tense. 



I shall do 

thou wilt do 

he will do 



Plural. 

we were doing 
you were doing 
they were doing 



we did 
you did 
they did 



Raimp 
Reot, raiot 
Raint 



we shall do 
you will do 
they will do 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

1. Ra rinn I may do | Ra raimp we may do 

2. Ra ri thou mayst do \ Ra reot you may do 

3. Ra raio he may do \ Ra raint they may do 



OPTATIVE MOOD. 

1st Conditional. 

1. Raen I should do Raemp we should do 

2 . Raez thou shouldst do Raec'h you should do 

3. Rae he should do Raent they should do 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 35 

2nd Conditional. 

Singular. Plural. 

i . Ra raenn / might do \ Ra raemp we might do 



2 . Ra raez thou mightst do 

3 . Ra rae he might do 



Ra raec'h you might do 
Ra raent they might do 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



I. 

2. Gra do thou 

3. Graet let him do 



Greomp let us do 

Grit do ye 

G raent let them do 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

ober (to afo.) 

Present Participle Oc'h ober doing 
Perfect Participle Great having done 



AN INTRODUCTION 



CHAPTER V. 

The verb Karout, as a paradigm of the Breton verb, 
is here given in all its forms. 

I. 

THE REGULAR VERB KAROUT (to love). 
Personally conjugated. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 



Singular. 



riural. 



1. Karann 

2. Karez 

3. Kar 

i. Karenn 



I love 
thou lovest 
he loves 



Karomp we love 

Kirit you love 

Karont they love 



Imperfect Tense. 
I was loving \ Karemp 



2 . Karez thou wast loving 

3. Kare he was loving 



we were loving 
Karec'h you were loving 
Karent they were loving 



1. Kiriz 

2. Karzoud 

3. Karaz 



1. Kirinn 

2. Kiri 

3. Karo 



Perfect Tense. 
I loved | Karzomp 



thou lovedst 
he loved 



we loved\\ 

Karzot you lovet 

Karzont they lovet 



Future Tense. 



I shall love 

thou wilt love 

he will love 



Kirimp we shall lovt 

Kerrot you will lovt\ 

Kirint they will lov t 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 



37 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 



Singular. 

1. Ra girinn I may love 

2. Ra giri thou mayst lave 

3. Ra garo he may love 



Plural. 

Ra girimp we may love 
Ra gerrot you may lave 
Ra girint they may lave 



OPTATIVE (OR CONTINGENT) MOOD. 
1st Conditional Tense. 



1. Karfenn* I should or 

might love 

2. Karfez thon mightest 

love 

3 . Karfe he might love 



Karfemp we might love 
Karfec'h yon might love 
Karfe nt they might love 



2nd Conditional Tense. 
I. Ragarfenn I might love j Ra garfemp 



2. Ra garfez 

3. Ra garfe 



I. 

2. Kar 

3. Karet 



t Ra garfec'h 
[ Ra garfent 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Karomp 
Kirit 



love thon 
let him love 



Karent 



let us love 

love ye 

let them love 



INFINITIVE MOOD Karout (to love). 
Present Participle O karout loving 
Perfect Participle Karet loved 

* The modal stem letters/ (=ph); z=.j=i (=dh), upon 
which personal inflexions are based, are practically interchangeable 
throughout this mood of the Breton verb. 



AN INTRODUCTION 



II 

THE REGULAR VERB KAROUT (to lave). 
Impersonally conjugated. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

Singular. Plural. 

1 . Me a gar ^ English as 1 Ni a gar 

2. Te a gar \ personal j C'houi a gar 

3. Hen a garj verb. Hi (hint) a gar 



1 . Me a gare 

2. Te a gare 

3. Hen a gare 



1 . Me a garaz 

2. Te a garaz 

3. Hen a garaz 



1 . Me a garo 

2. Te a garo 

3. Hen a garo 



Imperfect Tense. 

Ni a gare 
C'houi a gare 
Hi a gare 

Perfect Tense. 

Ni a garaz 
C'houi a garaz 
| Hi a garaz 

Future Tense. 

Ni a garo 
C'houi a garo 
Hi a garo 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

(Not rendered impersonally.) 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 39 



OPTATIVE MOOD. 

1st Conditional Tense. 

Singular. Plural. 



1. Me a garfe 

2. Te a garfe 

3. Hen a garfe 



Ni a garfe 
C'houi a garfe 
Hi a garfe 



2nd Conditional Tense. 
(Not rendered impersonally.) 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

(Not rendered impersonally). 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

(Not rendered impersonally.) 

III. 

THE REGULAR VERB KAROUT (to love). 
Personally conjugated with the Auxiliary Verb BEZA. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 



1. Karedounn I am loved 

2. Kared oud thou art 

loved 

3. Kared eo he is loved 



Kared omp we are loved 
Kared oc'h you are loved 

Kared int they are loved 



4 o 



AN INTRODUCTION 



Imperfect Tense. 

Singular. Plural. 



1. Kared e oann I was 

being loved 

2. Kared e oaz thou wast 

being laved 

3. Kared e oa he was be- 



Kared e oamp we were be- 
ing loved 
yoii were 



Kared e oac'h 



being loved 
Kared e oant they were 



ing loved 

Perfect Tense. 



being loved 



\ . Kared e oenn / was 
loved 

2. Kared e oez thou wast 

loved 

3. Kared e oe he was loved 



Kared e oemp 



Kared e oec'h 



Kared e oent 



we were 
loved 

you were 
loved 

they were 
loved 



Future Tense. 



1. Kared e vezinn I shall 

be loved 

2. Kared e vezi thou wilt 

be loved 

3. Kared e vezo he will be 

loved 



Kared e vezimp we shall 
be loved 

Kared e vezot you will be 
or viot loved 

Kared e vezint they will 
be loved 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 



i. Ra vezinn karet I may 
be loved 



2. Ra vezi karet 



thou 



mayst be loved 

3. Ra vezo karet he may 

be loved 



Ra vezimp karet we may 
be loved 

Ra vezot karet you may 
or viot be loved 

Ra vezint karet they may 
be loved 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 



OPTATIVE MOOD. 

1st Conditional Tense. 



Singular. 

Kared e venn I should 
be loved 

Kared e vez thou 

shouldst be loved 

Kared e ve he should 
be loved 



Plural. 

Kared e vemp we should 
be loved 

Kared e vec'h you should 
be loved 

Kared e vent they should 
be loved 



2nd Conditional. 



1. Ravennkaret I might 

be loved 

2. Ra vez karet thou 

mighst be loved 

3. Ra ve karet he might 

be loved 



Ra vemp karet we might 
be loved 

Ra vec'h karet you might 
be loved 

Ra vent karet they might 
be loved 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



I. 

2. Bez karet be loved 
3 . Bezet karet let him be 
loved 


Bezomp karet let us be 
loved 
Bezit karet be ye loved 
Bezent karet let them be 
loved 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Beza karet to be loved 

Present Participle O veza karet being loved 
Perfect Participle Bet karet having been loved 



AN INTRODUCTION 



IV. 

THE REGULAR VERB KAROUT (to lave). 
Impersonally conjugated with the Auxiliary Verb BEZA. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 



Singular. 

1 . Me a zo karet \ English 

2. Te a zo karet L 

3. Hen a zo karet ) verb. 



Plural. 

Ni a zo karet 
C'houi a zo karet 
Hi a zo karet 



1 . Me a oa karet 

2. Te a oa karet 

3. Hen a oa karet 



1 . Me a oe karet 

2. Te a oe karet 

3. Hen a oe karet 



Imperfect Tense. 

Ni a oa karet 
C'houi a oa karet 
Hi a oa karet 

Perfect Tense. 

Ni a oe karet 
C'houi a oe karet 
Hi a oe karet 



Future Tense. 

1 . Me a vezo karet I Ni a vezo karet 

2. Te a vezo karet C'houi a vezo karet 

3. Hen a vezo karet Hi a vezo karet 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



(Not rendered impersonally.) 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 43 

OPTATIVE MOOD. 

1st Conditional Tense. 

Singular. Plural. 



1. Me a ve karet 

2. Te a ve karet 

3. Hen a ve karet 



Ni a ve karet 
C'houi a ve karet 
Hi a ve karet 



2nd Conditional Tense. 
(Not rendered impersonally.) 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

(Not rendered impersonally.) 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

(Not rendered impersonally.) 

V. 

THE REGULAR VERB KAROUT (to love). 
Personally conjugated with the Auxiliary Verb KAOUT. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 



i . Kared em euz / have 
loved 



Kared hon euz we have 
lovea 



2. Kared ec'h euz thou \ Kared hoc'h euz you have 
hast loved \ loved 



3. Kared hen deuz he has 
loved 



Kared ho deuz they have 
loved 



44 



AN INTRODUCTION 



Singular. 

Kared em boa / had 
laved 

Kared ez poa thou 

hadst loved 

Kared hen doa he had 
laved 



Imperfect Tense. 

Plural. 

Kared hor boa 



Kared ho poa 



Kared ho doa 



Perfect Tense. 



1 . Kared em boe 

2. Kared ez poe 
3- 



N English 
\ as Im- 
,., \ptrfoct 

Kared hen doe ) Tense. 



Kared hor boe 
Kared ho poe 
Kared ho doe 



Future Tense. 



we had 
loved 

you had 
loved 

they had 
loved 



1 . Kared em bezo / shall 

have loved 

2 . Kared ez pezo thou wilt' 

have loved 

3. Kared hen devezo he 

will have loved 



Kared hor bezo we shall 
have loved 

Kared ho pezo you wilt 
have loved 

Kared ho devezo they will 
have loved 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 



R'am bezo karet I may 
have loved 

R'az pezo karet thou 

mayst have loved 

R'en devezo karet he 

may have loved 



R'or bezo karet we may 
have loved 

R T 6 pezo karet you may 
have loved 

R'6 devezo karet they may 
have loved 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 45 



OPTATIVE MOOD. 

1st Conditional Tense. 

Singular. Plural. 

1 . Kared em be I should \ Kared hor be we should 

have loved have loved 

2. Kared ez pe thou Kared ho pe you should 

shouldst have loved have loved 



3. Kared hen defe he 

should have loved 



Kared ho defe they should 
have loved 



2nd Conditional Tense. 
i . R'arn befe karet / , R'or befe karet we might 



might have loved 

2. K'az pefe karet thou 

mightst have loved 

3. R'en defe karet he 

might have loved 



have loved 
R'6 pefe karet you might 

have loved 
R'6 defe karet they might 

have loved 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

(Lacking.) 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Kaout karet to have loved 

Present Participle (Lacking). 
Perfect Participle (Lacking). 



AN INTRODUCTION 



VI. 
THE REGULAR VERB KAR OUT (to love). 

Impersonally conjugated with th<: Auxiliary Verb 
Kaout. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present Tense. 



Singular. 

1. Me em euz karet 

2. Te e'ch euz karet 

3. Hen hen deuz karet 



Plural. 

Ni hon euz karet 
C'houi hoc'h euz karet 
Hi ho deuz karet 



Imperfect Tense. 



1. Me em boa karet 

2. Te ez poa karet 

3. Hen hen doa karet 



Ni hor boa karet 
C'houi ho poa karet 
Hi ho doa karet 



Perfect Tense. 

1 . Me em boe karet I Ni hor boe karet 

2. Te ez poe karet C'houi ho poa karet 

3. Hen hen doe karet Hi ho doe karet 

Future Tense. 

1 . Me em bezo karet | Ni hor bezo karet 

2. Te ez pezo karet C'houi ho pezo karet 

3. Hen hen devezo karet Hi ho devezo karet 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 
(Not rendered impersonally.) 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 



47 



OPTATIVE MOOD. 

1st Conditional Tense. 

Singular. Plural. 

Ni hor be karet 
C'houi ho pe karet 
Hi ho defe karet 



1 . Me em be karet 

2. Te ez pe karet 

3. Hen hen defe karet 



2nd Conditional Tense. 
(Not rendered impersonally.) 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

(Lacking.) 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

(Not rendered impersonally.) 



VII. 

THE REGULAR VERB K A ROUT (to love). 
Personally conjugated with the Auxiliary Verb OBER. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 



i . Karoud a rann I do love 



2 . Karoud a rez thou dost 

love 

3. Karoud a ra he does 

love 



Karoud a reomp we do 

love 

Karoud a rit yon do love 



Karoud a reont 



they do 
love 



AN INTRODUCTION 



Imperfect Tense. 

Singular. Plural. 

i. Karoud a reann^ as Karoud a reamp 

Karoud a reac'h 
Karoud a reant 



, ' 

2. Karoud a reez > act of 

3. Karoud a rea J 



Perfect Tense. 



1 . Karoud a riz 7 did 

/ore 

2. Karoud a rejoud* thou 

didst love 

3. Karoud a reaz ^ afr# 

love 



Karoud a rezomp o> did 
love 

Karoud a rezot you did 
love 

Karoud a rezont they did 
love 



Future Tense. 

1. Karoud a rinn^ shall be \ Karoud a raimp 

2 . Karoud a ri > the ct O j Karoud a reot 

3. Karoud a raid / loving. Karoud a raint 

This form is conjugated only in the Indicative Mood. 



* The parasitic fricative j (dzh) almost invariably usurps the 
place of z, which more correct use is now regarded as archaic. 
Agreeably with expectation, and as in other languages, colloquial 
usage has taken large liberties with this person, the extent of which 
may be gauged by a comparison of the foregoing with the summary 
treatment of the original ez (=yth) by Zeuss (Grammatica Celtica, 
p. 507); yet oddly enough, side by side with this, there is clearly 
discernible a tendency to revert to the original type, or rather to go 
beyond it by the conversion of final mediae to tenues. This ten- 
dency is noticed here (and will be illustrated hereafter) for the pur- 
pose of emphasizing that peculiarity which serves to distinguish 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 49 



CHAPTER VI. 



NOTES ON BRETON VERBS. 

1. Active verbs become passive when their perfect 
participle enters into loose composition with the tenses 
of the Auxiliary Verb beza, or, when in the impersonal 
form, they are preceded by their perfect participle. But 
there is an independent passive form, which consists in 
adding to the stem of the (impersonal) verb, in place 
of its proper tense termination, -er for the present, -ed 
for the imperfect and perfect, -or for the future, -fed 
for the ist conditional, and -edeur for the infinitive 
mood; Me a garer, Me a gared, &c. 

2. All regular verbs belong to one conjugation only, 
in which conjugation the tense terminations of the 
first person singular are as follows: 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present, -ann; Imperfect, -enn; Perfect, -iz; future, 
-inn. 

this speech from others of its Aryan relatives (even of its Celtic 
congeners, whose use of ' provection ' is relatively small). In the 
sea of ' decaying phonetics ' which stretches from the Himalayas to 
Achil Head, Armorica is the backwater in which swirl ' construc- 
tive ' and ' destructive ' tendencies, and Celtic precision ever wars 
with Gallic slovenliness (vide Spectator, April 25th, 1903. ' English 
as spoken in Ireland'). 
4 



50 AN INTRODUCTION 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present, -inn;* 1st Conditional, -fenn; 2nd Con- 
ditional, -fenn;* Participle, -et. 

3. The stem of a Breton verb is discovered in the 
2nd person singular of the imperative mood. 

4. Government of Number : 

(1) The personal verb knows little distinction 

of number it is usually singular in the 
3rd person, but the impersonal verb takes 
its proper number. 

(2) Nouns, coupled by the conjunction ha, hag, 

even though of the plural number, govern 
a singular verb. 

(3) The negatived verb follows in number a 

plural subject. 

(4) Two negatived nouns coupled by na (neither 

.... nor) govern a plural verb. 

(5) When, according to Breton use, a verb ' re- 

duplicates,' the former part is in the in- 
finitive mood, the second part takes its 
proper number: Beza ez ounn, &c. 

5. An interrogative sentence is introduced by ha 
before a consonant, and hag before a vowel, placed im- 
mediately before the verb (or the pronoun which pre- 
cedes the verb, if expressed); except when the verb is 
personally rendered, when the order of the sentence is 
as follows: Participle, pronoun, auxiliary verb, pro- 
noun emphatic, when ha, hag is omitted; but a noun- 

* With the (mutated) root preceded by the particle ra, itself 
one of the mutated forms of the verb ober. 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 51 

subject requires the interrogatival introductive even 
in this case, and the position of the noun-subject is 
last in the sentence, and requires stress in viva voce. 

N.B. As the object of this work is to help rather 
to a literary than colloquial acquaintance with the 
Breton language, many of those rules commonly found 
in books on Grammar are omitted, it being thought 
advisable not to overburden and obscure the text with 
too copious notes, unimportant exceptions, and (rare) 
alternative readings. Its object is not to teach gram- 
mar, but to place before the reader who is also a 
grammarian materials, by the intelligent use of which 
he will speedily find himself able to read the most easily 
acquired language of Celtdom. Those desiring a closer 
and more introspective examination of the structure of 
the Breton verb, must go to the rock whence this is 
hewn Le Gonidec, and compare his findings with 
results deducible from a study of the Breton Bible 
(Trinitarian Bible Society), or New Testament (British 
and Foreign Bible Society). It is only fair to state, 
however, that owing to a commendable desire to be 
understanded of the people, neither of these versions 
boast the literary merit of Le Gonidec's Bible, or the 
New Testament of de Mai, Bishop of St. Brieuc; the 
modern versions exhibit far too many * gallicisms.' 



52 AN INTRODUCTION 



CHAPTER VII. 



THE NOUN. 

Proceeding along the line indicated in the last para- 
graph, there will be little to say under this heading. 

GENDER. 

I. There are but two genders, masculine and femi- 
nine, the former, of course, including all males, and the 
latter all females. An office or estate which may be 
held by either, or is common to both, is expressed by the 
sex of the person holding it when recorded parent, 
neighbour, &c., otherwise, by the masculine gender. 

II. Of necessity then, a number of nouns having 
no sex implied in themselves must fall, as in all Celtic 
languages, under one of these two headings of gender; 
this difficulty will be appreciated at its proper value by 
Celtic, rather than by English-speaking people. For 
instance, Gambold's rule conveys but little to the mind 
uninstructed in the Welsh language. 'Any word be- 
ginning with one of the mutable consonants, except // 
and rh, if upon putting the article y in apposition 
before it, its initial consonant does naturally change 
into its light sound, as melin, y felin; caseg, y gaseg; 
such words are infallibly of the feminine gender.' Such 
remark recalls the well-worn but witty criticism on a 
certain book of cookery, publishing its unrivalled re- 
cipe for 'jugged hare:' First catch your hare! Just 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 53 

so far is Gambold's rule of use to those learning the 
Breton language, and its application mutatis mutandis 
is equally sound in Welsh and Breton. (See Chapter 
XI. on Mutations.) 

III. Le Gonidec, in his usual painstaking way, 
details the indication of sex in some seventeen classes 
of nouns; these details of a kind made familiar to us 
in Rowlands' Welsh Grammar, Stewart's Gaelic Gram- 
mar, and other high standard Celtic works are of 
little use for our purpose. The Celt, as before men- 
tioned, will find nothing to shock his sense of propriety 
in the matter of gender; indeed the Welshman (ignor- 
ance forbids me to speak so precisely for the Gael) will 
find pleasure in noticing how his own division of gen- 
der is closely followed by the Breton. 



NUMBER. 

I. There are two numbers, singular and plural, the 
plural being usually, though not by any means invari- 
ably, formed from the singular.* By far the most 
common method of forming the plural is by the addi- 
tion of ou to the (nominative) singular, except where 
that singular ends in f preceded by a vowel, in c*h, 
single /, single , o, single r, u, in z (where z changes 
to s), in all of which cases the plural is formed by the 
addition of iou. 

II. Some singular nouns shorten in the plural.* 

* In some instances the singular appears to be formed from the 
plural where the latter is the natural division, as in Welsh, adar, 
birds \ sing., aderyn; plant, children; sing., plentyn, &c. 



54 AN INTRODUCTION 

III. Other nouns (principally names of animals) 
form their plural by the addition of ed, many by the 
addition of ten. 

IV. Some philologists profess to see the relics of a 
once flourishing dual number in the Breton as in 
Cornish and Welsh also nomenclature for those parts 
of the body of which we are normally in possession of 
a pair, and which together are spoken of as aim diou 
vreac*h (the two arms), ann diou c*hdr (the two legs), 
reserving their plural form, brec'hiou and gari'ou, for 
use where more than two such members are intended. 



CASE. 

The cases of Breton nouns are undeclined, and must 
be determined 

1. By the position of the noun in the sentence. 

2. Or, by the article which precedes it, for which 

see Article, p. 18. 



NOTES ON THE POSITION OF THE BRETON NOUN. 

I. The subject usually precedes the verb, but when 
particular objective emphasis is required, it cedes its 
precedence to the object of the sentence. 

II. The subject of the sentence is often placed after 
a neuter verb. 

III. The latter of two nouns in collocation is in the 
genitive case. 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 55 



CHAPTER VIII. 



THE ADJECTIVE. 

I. The Breton adjective is a far more simple part of 
speech than its elaborate Gaelic equivalent of four de- 
clensions, more simple even than the Welsh adjective, 
inasmuch as it admits of no change to vary its mean- 
ing in the matter either of gender, number, or case. It 
closely follows the noun which it qualifies, in position 
and mutation: 

Ar mab mad Ar mipien mad 

The good son The good sons 

Eur verc'h mad a garo he mamm mad 
A good daughter will love her good mother 

II. There are but three degrees of comparison in the 
Breton adjective, as against the four well defined 
degrees of Welsh grammarians. Ordinarily these are 
formed by the addition of oJh to the positive for the 
comparative degree, and the addition of a to the posi- 
tive (which is preceded by the definite article) for the 
superlative degree: except 

(1) Mad (good); compar., gvvell; superL, ar gwella. 
Drouk (bad); compar., gwaz; super., ar gwasa. 

(2) Adjectives ending in o change the o into v for 

the stem letter of comparative and superlative 
degree, and then proceed according to rule: 
Teo (fat); compar., tevoc'h; superl., ann teva. 



AN INTRODUCTION 



(3) Adjectives ending in z change the z into s for 
the stem letter of comparative and superlative 
degree, and then proceed according to rule: 
Braz (great] ; brasoc'h ; ar vrasa. 
There is also a use which recognizes the adverb meur- 
bed (Welsh, mawr byd\ immense, also the adjective 
braz, great, as qualifying other adjectives and adverbs 
superlatively. 

NUMERALS. 



No. 


Cardinal. 


Ordinal. 


I 


Unan 


Kenta 


2 


Daou,/diou 


Eil 


3 


Tri,/teir 


Trived and Trede 


4 


Pevar,/peder 


Pevarved, pevare 


S 


Pemp 


Pemved 


6 


C'houec'h 


C'houec'hved 


7 


Seiz 


Seizved 


8 


Eiz 


Eizved 


9 


Nao 


Naved 


10 


Dek 


Degved 


ii 


Unnek 


Unnegved 


12 


Daouzek 


Daouzegved 


13 


Trizek 


Trizegved 


14 


Pevarzek 


Pevarzegved 


15 


Pemzek 


Pemzegved 


16 


C'houezek 


C'houezegved 


17 


Seitek 


Seitegved 


18 


Triouec'h 


Triouc'hved 


19 


Naontek 


Naontegved 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 



57 



No. 


Cardinal. 


Ordinal. 


20 


Ugent 


Ugendved 


21 


Unan war-n-ugent 


Kenta war-n-ugent 


25 


Pemp war-n-ugent 


Pemved war-n-ugent 


30 


Tregont 


Tregondved 


40 


Daou-ugent 


Daou-ugendved 


50 


Hanter-kant 


Hanter-kandved 


60 


Tri-ugent 


Tri-ugendved 


70 


Dek ha tri-ugent Degved ha tri-ugent 


80 


Pevar-ugent Pevar-ugendved 


90 


Dek ha pevar-ugent Degved ha pevar-ugent 


91 


Unnek ha pevar-ugent Unnegv 7 ed ha pevar- 






ugent 


100 


Kant 


Kandved 


no 


Dek a kant 


Degved ha kant 


120 


C'houec'h-ugent 


C'houec'h-ugendved 


I 5 


Dek ha seiz-ugent 


Degved ha seiz-ugent 


180 


Naou-ugent 


Nao-ugendved 


200 


Daou c'hant 


Daou-c'handved 


220 


Unnek-ugent 


Unnegved-ugent 


250 


Dek ha daouzek-ugent 


Degved ha daouzek- 






ugent 


3OO 


Pemzek-ugent or tri 


Pemzek-ugendved 




c'hant 




360 


Triouec'h-ugent Triouec'h ugendved 


390 


Dek ha naontek-ugent 


Degved ha naontek- 






ugent 


4OO 


Pevar c'hant 


Pevar-c'handved 


500 


Pemp c'hant 


Pimp-c'handved 


1000 


Dek-kant or mil 


Dek-c'handved 



AN INTRODUCTION 



NOTES ON THE BRETON ADJECTIVE. 

I. The Adjective almost invariably follows the 

noun it qualifies, according to customary Celtic usage. 

Except /, after the adjective koz (old), where as 

with its Welsh and Irish equivalents hen and 

scan it precedes the qualified noun.* 

//. Adjectives of comparative and superlative 

degree frequently precede the qualified noun. 
II. Numerical Adjectives, when cardinal, govern a 
singular noun. 



* This is also true of the following adjectives: gwell (bad), 
hevelep (similar}, gour (small), berr (short), briz (mixed), bihan 
(little), dister (of little value), gwez (wild), gwtr (true), hir (long), 
nevez (new), holl (all), pell (far), and a few others. 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 59 



CHAPTER IX. 



THE ADVERB. 

Of this part of Breton speech it will be necessary 
to say but little. The usual distinctions made by 
grammarians of time, place, and manner are appli- 
cable here also. The position of the adverb is as near 
the beginning of the sentence as possible. 

I. As in Welsh so in Breton, there are a number 
of compounded adverbs in addition to the simple forms 
common to all languages. Of this class are ouc'h-penn 
= Welsh, uwch-ben] rak-tal= Welsh, rhag-llaw, and 
very many others. 

II. The usual method of compounding an ' adverb 
of manner ' is to take the cognate adjective, and to 
cause either the particle ez, or the preposition gant 
to precede that adjective (cf. Welsh, yn } adverbial; 
English, suffix -fy- Gaelic, air, gu, do). 

III. Some adverbs are compared according to the 
rule given for the comparison of adjectives, other ir- 
regularly. 

IV. Adverb of affirmation and negation, ia, yes; 
nann, no. But direct affirmation or negation is very 
rare. 



6o 



AN INTRODUCTION 



CHAPTER X. 



THE PREPOSITION. 

As the preposition enters extensively into composi- 
tion both in its simple and compound form a list 
of the principal prepositions with their meanings in 
English is here given. 

All Breton Prepositions but da and compounds of 
da (which govern the dative article) are said to govern 
the ' Objective ' case 



a 


of, from 


e-touez 


amongst 


abarz 


before 


etre 


betwixt 


bete(g) 


until 


e-treze 


against 


kent 


before 


enep 


opposite to 


da 


to 


estre 


besides 


diouc'h 


according to 


evit 


fir 


di-rak 


in the pre- 


er-meaz 


outside of 




sence of 


gant 


with 


di-war 


upon 


goude 


after 


diwar-ben 


concerning 


hep 


without 


e, enn, el, er 


in 


nemet 


except 


ebarz 


within 


nez 


near 


ekreiz 


in the midst 
of 


ouc'h, out, 
ouz 


\from^ fo, at 


e-leac'h 


instead of 


rak 


before 


e-pad 


dtiring 







TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 



6l 



rag-enep-da face-to-face 

with 

rak-tal-da in the face of 
war on, upon 



war-dro-da around 
war-c'horre upon the face 

of 

1 war-lerc'h behind 



The preposition enn, el, er (in), is governed in form 
by the same conditions as apply to the forms of the 
article (q.v.). 



CONJUNCTIONS. 

The following are the conjunctions of most common 
occurence: 



arre again er-vad* 


but indeed 


avec'h scarcely hogent 


but 


kement so that c'hoaz 


furthermore, 


ker, ken, kel equally as 


again 


koulskoude nevertheless 


ivez, ive 


moreover, 


eta then 




also 


evel as 


ma, mar 


tf 


ha, hag and 


pa 


when 


eget, evit than na, nag 


neither, nor 


da vihana at least mar-te-ze 


perhaps 


da ouzoud eo scilicet penaoz 


how that 


: (Welsh, sef.) evelse 


consequently 



* Er-vad is used only in the sentence. 
\ Hogen introduces a sentence. 



62 



AN INTRODUCTION 



CHAPTER XI. 






THE MUTATIONS. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

The following is the table upon which the whole 
process of mutation is founded: 





I. 


II. 


II 


I. 




Radical. 


Middle. 


Weak. 


Strong 
Provective. 




( K 


G 


C'H 


... 


Surd 


P 


B 


F 


... 




I T 


D 


Z 


... 




( G 


C'H 


... 


K ) 


Sonant 


B 


V 


... 


P 




I D 


Z 


... 


T J 


Liquid 


M 


V 


... 


... 


Sibilant 


S 


Z 




... 


Hybrid 


Gw 


W 


... 


Kw 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 63 

AS COMPARED WITH CORNISH. 



Radical. 


Middle. 


Weak. 


Strong. 


Provective. 


f K 


G 


H 


... 


... 


P 


B 


F 


... 


... 


I T 


D 


Dh 


... 


... 


( G 


g + w 


... 


G 


[K] 


B 


V 


... 


B 


[P] 


I D 


Dh 


... 


D 


[T] 


M 


V 


... 


M 


... 


Gw 


W 


... 


... 


... 



AS COMPARED WITH WELSH. 



Radical. 


Middle. 


Weak. 


Strong. 


Nazalized. 


f C 
{ P 


G 
B 


Ch 
Ph 


... 


Ngh 
Mh 


I T 


D 


Dd 


... 


Nh 


f G 

B 
1 D 


-g 
F(=V) 
dd 


... 


..-. 


Ng 
M 
N 


M 


F(=V) 


... 


... 


... 


LI 


L 


... 


... 


... 


Rh 


R 


... 


... 


... 



64 AN INTRODUCTION 

I. A glance at the above tables will show us that 
there is a recognized and well-defined system of 
strengthening the mutation of the third degree (called 
1 provection ') of the sonants G, B, D, in the Breton 
language, which is exceptional in Cornish and un- 
known in Welsh.* 

II. The mutated forms of surd letters K, P, T, re- 
main practically the same in all these languages (for 
explanation of apparent variation see letters in question 
in alphabet, Chapter I.), and in doing so bear witness 
to the Aryan origin of the Celtic languages wherein 
the tenues give place consistently to mediae, and the 
mediae to aspiratae; (Gutturales) *, y, x; (Labiales) 
TT, , <; (Linguales) T, 8, 0. 

III. The mutated forms of sonant letters G, B, D, 
display slight variety in the matter of the middle form 
of the guttural G only. The middle Breton form of 
this letter is more persistent than in Cornish or Welsh, 
for the mutation c'/z is adhered to where the other 
languages adopt minus g. There is no reversion to 
the original radical form as in Cornish, but in its place 
we find the sonant form becoming surd, as already 
noticed. 

IV. Of the liquid letters, the labial M is the only 
persistent one throughout these three languages, re- 
ceiving its common mutation V. The mutated form 
of the sibilant S would appear to be peculiar to Breton, 
though Mr. Norris notices one instance of a similar 
change in Cornish. The same high authority also 

* We now speak only of initial mutation. 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 65 

quotes a late Cornish mutation recorded by Lhuyd of 
the labio-dental F into V (fordh, 'a way/ becoming 
an vordh, ' the way '), as well as a mutation of the 
third degree where floh, ' a child,' becomes a*n hloh, 
' of the child.'* This fact will not be without 
interest to the Gael, who, recollecting the similarity 
which exists between his own ' aspirated ' surds and 
sonants and the mutations of the Brython, will further 
trace the analogy between the remainder of his aspi- 
rated consonants M, S, and F (Mh, Sh, Fh), and those 
recorded above ; and doing so, will realize the complete 
harmony which exists throughout on that linguistic 
peculiarity which differentiates their common Celtic 
language from all other languages in the world. 

V. The Gutturo-labial compound KW has been 
reserved for separate consideration. One would have 
placed this compound subsecutive to the surd class had 
it not been for a passage which occurs in Prof. Rhys' 
treatise on 'Manx Phonology.' Upon p. 162 of that 
work he says (in speaking of the distinctions of Manx 
speech which entitle it to rank as a language apart 
from Scotch and Irish Gaelic as opposed to a mere 
dialect of that language) : * Manx may justly pride 
itself on being the only Celtic language to preserve 
instances of the ancient combination qu {i.e., qua, ' qu ' 
(=k), not *' (=k)], they are however not considerable 
in number.' t Now, moved by this remark from so great 

* Norris* Cornish Drama, p. 227. 

f In view of this statement, the writer was at first disposed to 
regard that large class of Welsh vocables beginning with this com- 
bination as resolving its second element into a pure vowel. But he 

5 



66 AX INTRODUCTION 

an authority the greatest living authority, one might 
say it is due to the Breton language to place on 
record its fidelity to the ancient Celtic sound, in its 
3rd (provective) mutation of the compound GW. We 
also have in Cornish the compound appearing in its 
radical form in such words as cwcth (Welsh, gwisg, 
where attrition is manifest), ( a garment,' and kwilken 
(no congenerous vocable in Welsh) 'a frog.' But there 
are a number of indisputable cases of its unequivocal 
use as a Breton radical. 

The modern and deplorable practice of assimilating 
Breton to French orthography, has led in many in- 
stances to discarding the letter K in favour of Qu; dis- 
crimination is therefore needed in deciding as to the 
originality of the compound. 



is assured that in a large number of cases this view is wholly un- 
tenable. There are two undoubted instances of loan-words among 
such, both of which the Latin had a genius for imparting, ' cweryl ' 
(Lat., querela; Fr., querelle; Span., querella; Ital., querela; but 
Gaelic, connsaick): and 'cwarel* (Norman-French, quarricr; Fr., 
carrier e, &c.; but Gaelic, tochail}. Of the rest; in some, such as 
cwato, cwarel (synonomous with O.E., quarrel=a </a/Y), cwali, 
cwaran, and cwympo, where a vowel immediately follows the com- 
bination, the two elements must be unisonant with that vowel ; 
in the remainder, the second element is naturally a self-contained 
vowel. One suspects that the word ' Celtic ' in the above passage 
is a lapsus calami for ' Gaelic.' 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 6j 



CHAPTER XII. 



I. 
SYNTACTICAL MUTATIONS. 

In connection with the gender of the noun substan- 
tive, the following mutations are made: 

A. All feminine nouns, preceded by the definite 
or indefinite article, mutate their initial to 
the second degree, where that initial letter 
is subject to mutation. 

B. EXCEPT those in D, which remain firm. 

C. All masculine nouns, preceded by the definite 
or indefinite article, remain firm. 

D. EXCEPT (a) those in K, which mutate to the 
third degree, and (b) those in S followed by 
a vowel, which mutate to the second degree. 
EXEMPLA 

Feminine Nouns. 

A. Bag boat ar vag, eur vag 

Kazek mare ar gasek, eur gasek 

Greg wife ar c'hreg, eur c'hreg 

Gwazien vein ar wazien, eur waz- 

ien 

Mamm mother ar vamm, eur vamm 

Pennaouerez gleaner ar bennaouerez, eur 

bennaouerez 



68 



AN INTRODUCTION 



B. but, 



Tors 

Sae 
Dereadegez 



loaf of 

bread 

robe 

modesty 



arm dors, eunn dors 



c. 


Breizad 


A Breton 




Den 


man 




Gour 


man 




Gwastader 


ravisher 




Marc'h 


horse 


D. 


Pendolok 
Talbenn 
but (a) Kiger 
(b) Sevener 


tadpole 
facade 
butcher 
executor 



ar zae, eur zae 
arm dereadegez, 

eunn dereadegez 
Masculine Nouns. 

eur andzx Breizad 
eunn and ann den 
eur and ar gour 
eur <7;/flfargwastader 
eur and ar marc'h 
eur and&r pendolok 
eunn is ann talbenn 
eur and ar c'higer 
eur and ar zevener 



II. 

MUTATIONS IN RESPECT OF THE PERSONAL PRONOl N. 

When the personal pronoun which is the object of 
the sentence is placed immediately before the principal 
verb, the initial letter of that verb, being mutable, is 
subject to the following mutations: 

1. The Accusative Pronoun of the First Person 
Singular, ma, am, subjects only the surd initials to 
mutation to the 3rd Degree: ma c'haret. 

2. The same Pronoun of the Second Person Singular 
da subjects all mutable initials to mutation to the 
2nd Degree: da garet. (a) But the second form az 
mutates only sonants to surds by provection. 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 69 

3. The same pronoun of the Third Person Singular, 
Masculine, he, subjects all mutable initials to mutation 
to the Second Degree. But the Feminine Pronoun 
of the Third Person, he, subjects only surd initials to 
mutation to the Third Degree: he garet, he c'haret. 

4. The same pronoun of the First Person Plural, 
hor, subjects only the surd letter k to mutation to the 
Third Degree: hor c'haret. 

5. The same pronoun of the Second Person Plural, 
hd, mutates only sonants to surds, by provection: ho 
karet. 

6. But the same pronoun of the Third Person 
Plural, ho, mutates only surds to the Third Degree: 
ho c'haret. In cases where the second and third 
person plural would be otherwise indistinguishable, 
the terminal insistant hu may be added to the verb to 
indicate the second person. 



III. 

MUTATIONS IN RESPECT OF THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUN. 

1 . The possessive pronoun of the First Person 
Singular, ma, mutates only surd letters to the Third 
Degree: ma c'her, my home (ker). 

2. The possessive pronoun of the Second Person 
Singular, da, mutates all mutable letters to the Second 
Degree: da ger, thy home. 

3. The masculine possessive pronoun of the Third 
Person Singular, he, mutates all mutable letters to the 
Second Degree: he ger, his home. 



7O AN INTRODUCTION 

4. The feminine possessive pronoun of the Third 
Person, he, mutates only surd letters to the Third 
Degree: he c'her, her home. 

5. The possessive pronoun of the First Person 
Plural, hor, mutates only the surd letter k to the 
Third Degree: hor c'her, our home. 

6. The possessive pronoun of the Second Person 
Plural, ho, mutates only sonants to surds by provec- 
tion : ho ker, your home. 

7. But the possessive pronoun of the Third Person 
Plural, ho, mutates only surds to the Third Degree: ho 
c'her, their home. 



IV. 

OTHER MUTATIONS. 

1. The present participle of the verb is subjected to 
mutation by the 6 precedent, to the following degree 
B to V, D to T, G to C'H, GW to W, and M to V. 

2. The same mutations hold good after c ('that') 
when preceding the future tense indicative, and ma 
before the subjunctive mood and second optative. 

3. The second numeral daou and diou govern all 
mutable nouns in the second degree. The third 
numeral tri and teir governs the surds in the third 
degree, and mutates s to z. The same applies to the 
fourth and ninth numeral, pc'var and peder, nao. The 
fifth numeral pemp governs the sonants B and G and 
the hybrid GW in provective degree. 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 7 1 

4. Certain prepositions, adverbs, and ' particles ' 
govern nouns, adjectives, and verbs in varying degree. 

5. A few nouns, firm in the singular, are mutated 
in the plural when defined by the article, and vice 
versa. The former are chiefly of masculine gender, 
the latter feminine. 

6. Compounded words of two substantives, whether 
proper or common, mutate the second moiety. 

A tendency exists in Breton, for purposes of perfect 
euphony (which may already have been observed in 
the conjugation of the compound verb), to terminal 
mutation, where the surd letter is always liable to 
yield place to its sonant in order to preserve the 
'rhythm' of the sentence: Kare^/ ounn for Kare/ 
ounn. See also changes in the Article. 



72 AN INTRODUCTION 



CHAPTER XIII. 



PROVECTION, &c. 

Speaking of the process of phonetic decay, which to 
a greater or less extent must exert its influence upon 
every language, Prof. Whitney says that in their in- 
ception these changes amount to inaccuracies of speech. 
' They attest the influence of that immense numerical 
majority who do not take sufficient pains to speak cor- 
rectly, but whose blunders become finally the norm of 
the language. They are mainly the result of two ten- 
dencies, the first of which is to make things easy to 
our organs of speech.'* As, who would say kmght, 
/sa/m, fora:<2S/le, toward, when the meaning is ade- 
quately conveyed by nit, sam, fo'c'sle, to'ard; or who 
would willingly revert to eAe^/xoo-vvr;, when by judicious 
exercise of phonetic economy he may make his mean- 
ing clear by the employment of but four elementary 
sounds atms, and even then, in speech at least, might 
dispense with one more of that attenuated number ? 
To-day the ' purist ' in linguistry debates within him- 
self as to how far he may legitimately go with the 
popular change, objecting his ' cannot ' to ' can't/ his 
'often' to 'of'n'; the 'purist' of to-morrow, convicted 
of pedantry, will utter his ' couldn't ' and ' wouldn't ' 
as readily as he writes his ' honor ' and ' color.' 

* ' Language, and the Study of Languages,' p. 28, sq. 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 73 

In a footnote on p. 48, dealing with this question of 
phonetic change, it was observed that two processes 
were at work in the Breton language. The one was 
the ' disintegrating ' process alluded to in the para- 
graph above, and from which destructive agency the 
Breton language is by no means free. But further 
than that; in this same direction no family of speech 
has gone further than the Celtic, none has so success- 
fully attempted the task of rendering its language one 
of perfect euphonic harmony and uninterrupted 
fluence, and of this there is abundance of evidence in 
the system of mutation alluded to as ' the common de- 
nominator of Celtic speech.' In harmony with this 
law, we find an elaborate yet natural system, whereby 
tenues give place to their mediae, mediae to their 
aspiratae, in order to conduce to this fluence. If it be 
true that ' growth and change make the life of a lan- 
guage, as they are everywhere else the inseparable 
accompaniment and sign of life,'* then indeed are the 
Celtic languages in happy case ! 

The second process which we observe at work is 
a directly ' reconstructive ' one, and makes in an opposite 
direction to that just noticed, and is frequently alluded 
to in the foregoing pages as Projection, The word 
used in this connection appears to owe its origin to 
Zeuss, in whose ' Grammatica Celtica ' (Vol. I. pp. 132 
146) the subject is treated extensively, though not 
exhaustively. A definition has already been afforded 
and its principles have been seen in operation, but it is 

* Whitney, Ibid. p. 32. 



74 AN INTRODUCTION 

due to the reader that some explanation should be 
offered of that which is claimed on behalf of the Breton 
language (or perhaps one should say, inclusively, of 
the Brythonic variants of Celtic). The claim advanced 
was, that it formed the exception to the general prin- 
ciple of l literal decadence ' the reason for which has 
been supplied above which is so distinguishing a 
feature in the language of the Indo-European family. 
The peoples speaking their own variant of the 
primitive Aryan language, and developing it as 
occasion offers, stand in marked contrast to those by 
whom they find themselves surrounded, for in the 
'agglutinating' languages spoken by these latter, there 
is, alas ! with the single and notable exception of 
Magyar and possibly Suomi, little occasion for de- 
velopment. And were it not so, the entire conditions 
and traditions of the language are against it, for the 
rigid working of the law of * umlaut ' so necessary a 
condition of their existence forbids any departure 
from constitutional (literary) usage. Now this law of 
' umlaut ' or vocalic sequence is no new thing to that 
northern branch of the Celtic race, who, striving after 
Celtic fluence, have formulated for themselves the rule, 
caol le caol agus leathan le Icathan. Though this 
canon of Gaelic grammarians burdens the orthography 
of the language, it is difficult to see how, short of the 
introduction of the consonantal signs of the Devan- 
agari, it is to be avoided, for when two words enter 
into actual composition with one another, the second 
in order has to be so far modified if needs be that 
its vowel sounds often abpear to undergo a complete 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 75 

change, when as a matter of fact the only sound modi- 
fied is the intervening consonant. Something of the 
same kind ' the apotheosis of the consonant ' seems 
to have obtained outside of the Aryan group, else how 
shall we account for the late introduction of the vowel 
point in Hebrew (e.g.] amongst the Semitic languages, 
or the loose vocalic distribution in the Old Magyar 
documents of the twelfth century, amongst the ' Scyth- 
ian ' languages ? Our forefathers lightly regarded the 
vowel in Cornish, as those acquainted with the Cornish 
literary remains are well aware, and it was to the ' apoth- 
eosis of the vowel,' amongst other things, that the 
death of the Cornish language as a spoken tongue must 
be largely attributed ! In so far, then, as the principle 
of ' umlaut ' finds inclusion in the Celtic tongues and 
its extent is surely as great in these as in Latin and 
Attic Greek it has conduced to the better preserva- 
tion of the language. 

In order to this better preservation is the principle 
of provection also, for by this process sonants which 
stood peculiarly liable from their position to lose their 
distinctive sound, are hardened into surds. Thus in 
Welsh we have 

Te,- teced tecach tecaf 

Gwly3 gwly/ed gwly/ach gwly/af 
rha/ed rha/ach rha/af 



This, by itself, does not appear to take us very far, 
but as far as it goes it is a recognition of the principle. 
In Cornish we go very much further, and discover that 
there are certain words which exercise the power of 



7<> AN INTRODUCTION 

provection over others. Thus, ' ow /ybbry T (for k ow 
debbry '=catt'ng), ' ow ^erthe ' (' ow guerthe'=j*//- 
*'), 'ow pewe ' (ow bewe=//'i7//^ r ); 'mar kruge ' 
(gruge=*/Vdfo), ' mar pyth ' (byth, //"&? w/7/ &?), ' mar 
callo ' (gallo =if he can)] ' mai,' that\ ' yn,' apposition 
(yn ta=w^//); and 4 maga/ equally, seems to have 
possessed this power in some stages of the language. 
Sufficient has been said in the foregoing chapter on 
Mutation and elsewhere to demonstrate the very com- 
plete hold, euphonically and syntactically, which pro- 
vection acquired over the Breton language, which 
renders further explanation of its operation unnecessary. 
Unlike the Welsh, the Breton use of provection seems 
rather to lie in the syntactical direction of genderal and 
numerical significance, though it is no stranger to the 
purely phonetic use of the Welsh. On the other 
hand, it is unlike the Euskarian (and Esthonian) use 
of provection which changes sonants to surds sporadi- 
cally, and then only upon condition of their following 
the letter r, the sibilants, or a vowel in composition. 

[In this connection it is interesting to note that 
Armoric phonetics are evolved on a closely parallel 
plane to the Greek. The pure sibilant 2av, early gives 
place to the palato-dental sibilant Z^ra, as representing 
the Hebrew y (Tsadhe) or Syriac Tsode, which is 
almost the value of the Irish slender b (d) and English 
d in ^/uty. At a later stage of the Greek language, 8, 0, 
approximate to sibilant (r, for which we actually find 
them substituted. This depravation goes unchecked, 
until at a late period of Attic Greek, the original form 
in sheer self-defence asserts itself once more, and the 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 77 

moribund and impotent diplasiasm era- reverts to TT. 
The Doric 0-105 for 0eo's records the nadir of Greek 
phonetic decadence, and points the fact that in pro- 
vection alone, if anywhere, is salvation from linguistic 
perdition; though even the change back to sonant form 
of the h, th, and f (the eviscerated Teutonic form of 
the proto-Aryan k, t, p), came too late to save the 
Gothic Language from extinction in the 9th Century. 
The same causes rendered the autochthonous languages 
of Germany, easily patient of subjection to one domi- 
nant idiom, when circumstances, first of all literary 
and ecclesiastical, and finally political, demanded the 
sacrifice of vernacular speech on the altar of Imperial- 
ism]. 

Foremost amongst the forces of disintegration at 
work on the Breton language is arraigned the dire 
influence of a population on its borders Gallic in 
language and ante-Breton in sympathy, and in this 
fact must be sought the explanation of the further fact, 
that ' Gallicisms ' are rapidly eating the heart out of 
the Breton language. Here there is no ' buffer-state ' 
to oppose itself to the powerful political and literary 
influence of the French nation, and the absence of such 
territory renders the future of this interesting old 
language precarious indeed, whilst the existence of such 
a territory has proved the salvation of languages whose 
lives have been threatened. Notably is this the case 
with Basque, which abutts on to both French and 
Spanish territory. M. Broca has pointed out that ' in 
Spain, Basque comes into collision with Spanish on its 
border under conditions of such inferiority as to render 



78 AN INTRODUCTION TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 

inevitable the gradual encroachment of Spanish. But 
in France, the dialect hemming-in the Basque is not, 
like the Spanish, an official, administrative, political, 
and literary language. It is not French, it is an old 
patois (Gascon) which is actually dying out. There is 
no good reason why such a dialect should supplant the 
Basque, or Basque encroach on it. Both are weak and 
threatened with absorption sooner or later by the 
French.' This last sentence is prophecy, that which 
precedes it is fact, as anyone may discover for himself 
by comparing the prevalence and purity of the Basque 
dialects (the Guipuzcoan and Biscayan), situated within 
Spanish territory, with those (the Labourdin and Soul- 
etin) in French territory. 



APPENDICES. 



So 



AN INTRODUCTION 



00 



w 

o 



o 1 
o ? 



W "^ 

is !- 

! 

& - 

W "^ 



w 

B 



r: 

X 

i i. 






Jr 



8-g 



6 

oo 

c 



g 



11 



= E 



-.H 







-e - *r a 



-t- 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 



8l 



Q 



<u 

J2 

T3 
O 



*- |.c 

at- 

t3 c o > 

<n rt ^ o 

t S -Q 

P*^ H c 

c ffi 

E l w 

Its 



erys 
s a' 



a 
y*n 



ew 

en 
gw 



c .<"! 



RJ 3 

- 



. Ha De 
dhens ebre 



By 





^ SO 

2^ 

' g , 
i 

^1- 

S O 

s" ^ I 

Ifl 

S^ i 



* I 

C T3 

rt C 

bJO rt 

'2 

> OS 

^ -C 



so 



^1 

>> 

J3 

oJ -O 

W 2 



yn dan an ebren, 
h an dowrow esens 



se 



o 

a" ^ 

<u 

^H t, T3 



S 
t^ 



bJO 



I III 
^ -T S 
'" .2' S bo 



^D 



P 

0^ -b bX) 3- 

j- n W 'a 

rt M 't3 .0 

N W) 3 10 W) 

J3 o 

CTj ^ I r I 



o$ oS o$ 



o$ ro 

C V D 

!a Q 

<u 

T3 nS 

c K 
c 

J vrc 






S '*^ 
I I 



P * 

o _p 

"^^ Q 

Z 8 

CS C 

N C 

o$ oS 

C S 



51 

bJD ^ 
oJ O 

J= N 

*~ ^ 



& 



a^ 



'g - 

^ OJ 



T3 ^ 



rt - ^, t 



.^ T3 

CT3 O 

S 



r Q 3 i 

C rt 

.-H "* 



^S ^^ 

1 -5 i 1 1 

. o> 0$ - 

^ o$ J3 T3 T3 

^3 C 13 T3 T3 

S * * g 

^ rt _, S ^ 



^! oj a ^ 



82 



AN INTRODUCTION 



,0 

^ O 

S 



y P3 

3 _E 






C fa 

^ c 



1 



o 



c 



SI ? 



PS C, 



*S -^JS 

i t<* 
5 z - 2 

2 o Q 5 

"^ X PS 

S *& if a 






$ 1 j 

^2 2 Q 



8 



g 



N i 

PS *r 

PS u 

JZ * 



3 J2 



> 



|| j. 

rt -r bjo 

PH ^ ^ 



oo c o3 
C PS 
PS T3 



S 
05 
^ 



PS S 1 



-C be 



PS ^ 



, ^ 



5 <2 



^O S ^ is 

^2 ^S -^ ^ 



3 N 

o && 



3 
c Q 

Q 

Q- 

C/3 pS 



o =r 



ft 



^ 

1? 

^ 

o 



g'-- 8 " 

*15 * ^ 

111 



00 



> ^^ 

ill 

x^b a 

B*> 



^ ^ 
^ k ^ . 

-n -JJ. ^ a a 



c 'c5 
^ B 



PS ^ 'V 



13 

1 



fe Jf = 9 . 

^ *\ -S x 

Ht 

* * J*** *^\ H*: 

cr -a > ^ ^ 

. -C3 ^3 vj ^> 

O O 5! "3 



O '< 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 

X 8 rt bjo .2 C J3 



83 



Q ^ 



r-? 



= *Mi 



c g 

c J2 

"rt ,- 






bc ^ 

C 

C ctf 

^5 O 



lavarez 
glazeur 



a 



ii. Ha Doue 
Ra raid aim douar 



had, giv 
frouez, he 



e 
ge 



g 
ou 



enn,pere ho dcvezo 
ho ho-unan war aim 
hag evel-se oe. 



icot 6 
frouez 



, 
gw 



vez ho 
had en 
douar: 



Br 

bC ^ 



r g 

bJO 3 oJ 



a.f- 



3.s 



s 






3 <0 SS '0 C 



, 



* 

3 * 



' 



s 

^ 



O 
J3 



84 



AN INTRODUCTION 



m nit- 

" " 






. 

M " 



I; X^g. 



i 



3 TO D C 
O 3 rt 

a ** "^ ^ -"J^ ^ ~<o * ' ^ r"' rtf 3 v- 

_ 



H 2 .5* 












; i * i ^ st s ' s X 5 S 



m 



TO BRP:TON GRAMMAR. 85 

r^ *jii ?! iiifi ? 

Q.J KL K* *^ p* Q.) j"~ ^^ ^ *x *^ 

i"Eo ^ -* o ^ 1 | ^i^|^!^> 

Z g J3 ^on-S^^M^ J? 5 -3 ^ ? J 

g^^.-o^g^s^c Q^ S ^^(S 

u I * H ^ hjo K!-~ * ^ ^ ^ **^ 

^i^ -*-^ _* _ _^r' ?>** ~* 

1 SB K 



,0 

CD 



c .fix^s^ J >: 

I! 2 "^ - ^ J 2 s ^ ' ^ v^ ^ S, 

jji^^pscIS"^ w ; c? ^ a ^ 

n3 *& PS ^ ^ -^\ SVQ ^j 




S -a '^^ 

? ^^ ^ 
o <: ^ s 



N 

OS 

1 

bO 



1 

D 



bo 

PS 

tt 

Q 



86 AN INTRODUCTION 



fs| 



Cu 

a ^ X o jC " o> -3 2 - ~ -'? 

-{tfk-CJr'-C;*.!* 6 ?^^ r^O) 

t/3 >>ur;(3D? CT ^ 5 '^' ; o- v 

^ re^><u (U <j$ v -t-'aj~7'^55 *?" oo " w 

*" ~^ o ^ 

e W 

*j Tt- 



iii||l f|ll | |i I 

^ * " N en c~ 7^ v( ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 'S 



8 



8 



C X^^ O ^ 3S S I V - 1 

o w o t: ' re J 3 -o ?s P S>> . 

! 

u 

^ i - - :>,-!~^ h-.^^ 

3 

Q 






TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 




88 AN INTRODUCTION 





N <U C N 
"* ,C C . rt 
O C ,g .Q g f *0 W K k "* 

&>| j s g-l'.-S 1 I | 

* v " "Z -c *a^^Q$; 
z ^ <: .s *> >*g c O- * * II ** *^ J 

p "^ ii ipitiMi? 

c $ ^ 5 ^ s 55 

_^ CTjJrtv- < Of- <c ^c | jQ^^ ^j~ . jj ?i 

x i b * S a * 3 ^ 

^J3 --0-^S^^ 52 

^ -- oc' 2 JC -5 2 * ^ V 



u 3 % N oc S -S 8 * ^ ^ ^ 

g|| 1 W .S)J8 ||1| | 

c beQ be CTJ-^^^-SS 



>< ^2 J v ' T3^-vlT>^ J,^i'Ji 

^ % 1^5 > S -^1 ^ 

8 Jj I z -s t. * t fr^ &.8 

S*>8/8 & l-Sl >. <l .li 

l^i ^ !*Siit5*fO 

s> y ^ s-Ss^^^-'^l' 5 ^ 

*, % "^^^J^ ati * 

>i *r i .8 ^-r; ^ ^ " ^ fe : Si ^ 

S^^"S ^^s^^a^^^-^^-^^ 

I &ir* SiPfr^^Sai^iffc^ 

lllff ^BLiSl-lli^* ^1 

- w |- ^lcl*.l|fllll 

^Sr^^i'^: >%^>%CJ Ta^SSe-S 1 ^ 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 



8 9 






<2 



g 6 



Q 



v. = 

W 0*5 

I -a 

rN ^^ 

^T s=L 






o 5 

^s 

* s ^ ^j 



"C^ ^ ?2 
*** 

^ ^ 

^ I 1^ 

si" Q 

.. - ^ k 

|| V 

' S Si 



It 



i: 



be 



x5 ft ?S 



k 
<s 

I 

i 
s 
^ 
s 
^ 

<s 




Q 



* I 



1< 



|f 

^ ?N 



i 



ON 
N 



3 



*T3 i 

l-i 

d> ** 

I* 

3| 

Si 

g> 






^ 

I 

<v, 




3 -^ S 

;g *S 

~ . * ^ 

?K * C* 

^ 5s i 



S s^ 

I C 

"^ ** 

j-l 



be 






1 







1 ' 



-= - 



a 

i 

8 ^ 



9 o 



AN INTRODUCTION 



rt - C 

- T3 

-3 E 



, p ! ** 

L! ,^t (1) 

be ^-5 t| 
** o-' --S 

be 

G C 



I 

S S 43 O 




w be .- 

J^ 5 



W) 



111 



2 T3 O 
'O U ^ 

c o u -a 

bJO >^~aJ >, 
'cri C ^ 

S ''] !* 8 

^ -S ^ > 

- jst-S 

-3 a> >* >. 
c " _^ 3" 









TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 













i 


CJ 




OS 


J 


C 
CJ 


ra 












J 


Zj 

.S 


cr 

CJ 


c/3 


" 




> 















N 


' 


1 


c 


J> 


?0 




han (Vannes), 


C 




RBIHAN. 


omb quevrat 


C 

vcj" 

3 

CJ 
,0 


v- 


cu 
3 

i-. 

OJ 

s 

cu 



Q 


4-1 

cu 
3 
cu 

u 


s = 

-a -S 

J5^ 

jf-s 

,c cu 

- 3 
T3 bfi 

<C^ '^ 


aJ 

TD 

C 
CD 

1 

3 




lo 

|M 




"o 


w 


O 

S 


*E 


i 


CJ 


c 


"i> 
>_ 


N 


-a 

s 

'S 


4_) 

-CD 




I+H 

O 


J 


s 




c 


0. 


4-1 


CJ 


OS 


cu 

T3 


1 




4-1 

OS 


O 


CU 




M 


3 



3 


CJ 


C 
cu 


C 


^ ^ 




*^ 


^2 


^ 






^ 


4-J 




c 


c/3 


C 


02 


jC 


"o 







^ 


isien 


cu 


* 


CJ 

1 


CU 

CD 


c| 

CD >M 


Q 


c 


c 


















CU 
OH 


o 

2 


"> 


c/D 
Z 

< 

i i 


If 






cu 


i 

cu 


aS 


."H 


< 


c 

4-1 
CJ 


SP 


W 

H 


[^ 


cu 









1 


^ 




"S 


G 


g' 


2 


c 




cu 


N 


3 


c 




"3 


G 
CD 


2 


Rt 


CD 




t> 


'5 


vu 


. 




*o 


1 



CJ 

I-H 


1 

3 



3 


Q 




3 



J5 


8 

1 


N 
CU 

.S 

~5 


T3 

1 




1 







t ( 


1 S 

s 


(/} 

O 




OS 


| 




JD 

3 




OS 


i}^ 










rS 


1^ 




* 




Q, 






R 


cu 




^^ 




as 


C/2 





u 






^ 


1 




c 
cu 


N 




N 


1 




< 








ha 

OS 


"LI 




be 


c 


T 


|M 

CD 
N 










ffi 


;| 




& 


cu 

3 


^ 


J 













*N 







1 


N 




















N 


U 


C flj 












as 






3 


CD 


C KT 










I 


C 









3 


CD .J5 1 



02 AN INTRODUCTION 

if 1U s '=* *3 * * "* 

| 5" * 8-cr ^g S^ -a-g 

" -s e .s -S -II U- . 2 -gi 

_ be x! ^ 



rt <u c .s *Q a 

J: c g =T ^2 ^ _ ^ ^ ^ _ 

6 ^ i ^ '^ I I "1 ' e' ^"^" f ^ 

! fc J*| c ^ 'g -a.2.5 g 

A 2 "5 "O "8 ^r a rt jf .=J S : 'C ^ 'g 

s=|f.s si x saj'| , 

sl<S s - .si - 5 11 M - * 



D ::, ro fc- 

\. C *T > g s p NU ^ 

g I g | -s, I -s. I * ft I- g -g : 



B H J' 5 g" ^ S" = Sj - ^ j, . fe 

I I lie- ?'= .Ss-eS^u-al 



w j 



TT - "-i JS C \d ' T -S r^. 3 <u oo 

** H o 3 -^^J-^2 1 CN W 

'55 i:^^ q> -fc 15 O QOJ 



Q D 






3 i * c' g bb S- 2 

s ti s" 5 . 1*11* i-i 

g^^-.cg N -^bi)c 1-2 

Vi e ? & e <u N N _ N on -^ 



a 



^ o 



i ^ c o So 3 go 3 S 

^-:-6aj'tf5 c a>a>-^^rt ? o 

1I 6 .^^ lila-tf i: 

odglj^c^c bccc .g 

c/j ^j ^ ^ QJ D L, O O T3 fl 

p=J3jo* ) 'aesf.r ^5 15 "C *JC c 

c ^ ^u ! 2 5 *pT .-, 'S 'S 2 ...o 
^ ^ 

^3088^55 ^^^"15 

; g I cf 5 -S 2 -S 5 -ff . t * * 

Cu* J bCo ^^ ^r^*!)^ v <uc 

o)-i->o_cCi-'L. <u ^-c^j.c uis' 

ffi^K J< 3g w WS ^ Q - Q^O 

.S^.o_.g^. rt N. ^2 

"^^ -u- c c """? 3^> 2 ^ *^ ^1) "Jn O b3 

J5 g B P- ^ ^ 



a 



S 2 .2 -o co -a U x 



TO BRETON GRAMMAR. 



93 





T3~ 13 


T3 *i3 




03 


^ 




E 


= 43 2 




V 1 ^ 


33 ,Q 




3 .gjs 


03 - D 
^ ^ CX 




C '> -M 

2 o o 

be - 


o3 -S - 

0, 5 P 
^ 03 5 

o) cu g 

CX 3 g 


^ 


03 3 43 


O^ ^- 





^ s 


3 "B ? 


n 




4j 43 
<U CJ 43 


43 3 

4-T C JO 


2 


3 rrt ^ 

'03 ** D 
C 43 o$ 


B'5^ 




S-s e 


gig 




t/3 QJ ^ 


bJO "S uo 




'O ^< ,qj 


rH 3 




S I : ^ 


S .2 -o 




W-t 


6^2 




O^ ^ *T^ 


-H 3 43 




a -1 


QJ . ^-i 


. w 


CX T3 




> * C 


g * 3 




o3 bjo 


3 S 




^ 13 43 


o .-r: .2 

Ctf ^^ f-\ 




<^ u j_T 


" ^ 




T3 D <u 


r- ^ 




P > 'J7> 




6 
w 


jf-n g 

3 > OT 

^ T3 
-* o3 3 

o3 
* 73 -flj 


I'o 

) O q 

- bC 2 

? 43 

03 - "^ 


1-1 


ts 2 S 


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